Symptoms and treatment of varicose veins

Varicose veins

Vascular problems are becoming more and more common in modern society. Today, varicose veins of the extremities are not only diagnosed in the elderly. The disease affects young people and even children.

What are the symptoms of varicose veins on legs, arms and other parts of the body? The first signs of the disease are very important to know. Since the effectiveness of all subsequent treatments depends on a timely diagnosis.

The symptoms of varicose veins on the legs and other parts of the body will be the subject of this article. We will also talk about the causes of diseases and the necessary preventive measures to prevent the development of the pathological process. And of course, we should look into all kinds of treatments for varicose veins in the legs, arms, or other organs.

It is believed that the disease affects only the limbs of the human body. However, this is not the case. Recently, doctors are increasingly diagnosing pelvic varicose veins in women. Pathology is also found in the veins of the esophagus and other internal organs. How can such anomalies be identified and treated? Let's find out.

Definition of the disease

Before knowing what a disease is, it is necessary to obtain general information about the structure of the human circulatory system.

As you know, blood circulates in our body through the vessels. Arteries are the vessels through which blood flows from the heart to various organs and tissues. Veins are also vessels, but blood flows through them in the opposite direction - from organs and tissues to the heart.

So that this goes in the right direction, there are one-way valves in each vein. They ensure the necessary blood flow in the right direction. What else can such valves achieve? Blood does not accumulate in one place, but rather circulates and enriches the body.

What do varicose veins look like

Varicose veins are characterized by damage to the intravascular valves or even by their complete absence. As a result, the general flow of blood is disturbed, it accumulates in the place where the pathology is recognized. This causes the veins to expand and widen abnormally.

There are different types of veins in our body - superficial (just under the skin), deep (hidden deep in muscle tissue) and communicative (connect the first two types).

The most frequently diagnosed varicose veins are superficial veins, for example on the legs in the knee, calf or thigh area. However, the disease can also affect the vessels that are located in the pelvic area or rectum.

Lower limbs

Let's first pay attention to the varicose veins of the lower extremities. Outwardly, the disease manifests itself in the form of purple, blue or bluish-green veins under the skin, which curl and bulge outward. Similar manifestations can be seen in the photo below.

Causes of leg varicose veins

The main cause of the appearance of the disease, as mentioned above, is the pathological processes that occur in the blood vessels themselves. What could trigger these changes?

The main provocateurs of the disease are hereditary predisposition to deformity of the veins. Excessive loads on the legs can also have a negative effect on the blood vessels, for example, if a person is constantly standing or walking because of their job. It is not surprising that teachers, athletes, and hairdressers are predisposed to this disease.

Other negative factors that affect vascular elasticity are obesity, hormonal changes, cardiovascular diseases (e. g. thrombosis).

Do not forget about bad habits that have a negative effect not only on the veins, but on the entire body. It is clear that smoking and alcohol abuse can provoke the development of a pathological process in the blood vessels.

Pregnancy can often provoke the development of a disease that places a great burden on a woman's entire body. Carrying a baby also affects the hormonal background of the expectant mother, which can also cause pathological processes in the circulatory system. However, it should be remembered that pregnancy as such is not the cause of varicose veins. Carrying a fetus may be the reason or one of the reasons for the manifestation of the disease.

It is no secret that the disease is most often diagnosed in women, and this is not always associated with the gestation period or hormonal changes. Wearing uncomfortable shoes (too narrow or with very large heels) is another major reason for the development of varicose veins of the lower extremities.

Various lesions of the veins can be an important factor in the development of abnormal expansion of the blood vessels. This can include trauma or inflammation in the blood vessels, and blood clots forming.

How can a disease be detected early so that timely and high-quality treatment can be started? Let's find out.

Details of the symptoms

The earliest sign of a problem is pain in the legs, where the valve was broken. It is also very important to watch out for discomfort in the lower limbs, as if the leg was heavy. This feeling is an important signal for a vascular deformation.

An abnormal protrusion of veins is another sign of the development of a pathology. Dark purple streaks appear under the skin that curl and swell.

The skin in the area of ​​the affected vessel becomes dry, can peel off and darken, itch and itch. In the place of development of the pathological process, edema is formed, the skin swells or swells.

If you do not pay attention to these manifestations in a timely manner, the symptoms may get worse. A person begins to have cramps, open ulcers form in the area of ​​the varicose veins, which can bleed and cause pain. Wounds can become infected. You should therefore see a doctor as soon as possible so as not to complicate an already difficult situation.

Identification of a disease

how to identify a disease

What will the hospital say? The specialist will most likely refer you to the necessary exams to diagnose the disease and rule out other likely diseases.

The most important diagnostic measure is the physical examination of the patient. Ask the patient to stand, sit, and wave their legs. The diagnosis is made on the basis of an external examination.

After that, the doctor may recommend undergoing an ultrasound Doppler, which can be used to examine blood flow and, if available, detect a thrombus.

An angiogram can also be prescribed by a specialist. This study involves the introduction of a certain dye into the vein, which will make the structure of the vessels and their pathological changes clearly visible on the X-ray.

General principles of recovery

Is it possible to cure varicose veins at home? Yes, especially when it comes to the early stages of the disease.

The first thing your doctor will recommend is adjusting your weight and nutrition program. That is, if the patient has extra pounds, then he should follow a special diet to normalize his body weight. If the patient's weight is normal, he must continue to monitor his diet and avoid fatty and salty foods, which negatively affect blood vessels and can provoke obesity.

Additionally, a therapeutic diet can mean avoiding strong coffee (and sometimes even tea), smoked meats, and canned foods. Alcoholic beverages are also a hundred percent contraindication for people with varicose veins. It is very important to eat plenty of vegetables and fruits (including fresh juices), grains, and soybeans. And of course don't forget the greens. Parsley, dill and lettuce help with every disease!

Treatment recommendations

The attending physician can also prescribe the wearing of compression underwear, for example stockings or even tights.

Many men can be complex with such unusual treatment for varicose veins in their legs. However, do not dwell on this topic. Compression underwear is a fairly common method of treating vascular diseases of the lower extremities. Its careful use not only saves the patient from unpleasant symptoms and painful sensations, but also prevents the disease from progressing. In some cases, such a garment is recommended to the patient for continuous use throughout his life. Very often, pregnant women are prescribed compression stockings to relieve their condition during pregnancy when the body cannot be helped in any other way.

The essence of this medical garment is that they squeeze the leg in the ankle area and gradually weaken the effect on the skin in the leg. This stimulates the blood flow to the heart.

Various compression stockings and tights are now available, which differ not only in size but also in the degree of compression (pressure on the leg).

Another option for treating varicose veins is the appointment of special gymnastics for the legs. The specialist recommends certain exercises for the patient to normalize blood flow in the extremities.

Continue with medication

To fight the disease, special ointments and oral medications can be prescribed, which are designed to thin the blood and improve circulation. Such drugs can also strengthen the walls of blood vessels, reduce inflammation, and relieve pain.

Most often, doctors prescribe phlebotonics (or venotonic drugs). They improve lymphatic drainage, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, give them elasticity and reduce capillary permeability.

The patient may also be prescribed antiplatelet drugs that dissolve clots and improve blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and suppressing their adhesion.

During the exacerbation of the disease, it is very important to take drugs that prevent blood clotting. For this purpose, the attending physician can prescribe drugs based on heparin or its derivatives.

According to experts, nonsteroidal drugs are best used for inflammation.

And of course we mustn't forget about ointments. Local preparations are offered in large quantities on the pharmaceutical market.

More radical treatments

radical treatments

The methods described above do not always achieve the desired result.

In such cases, your doctor may recommend non-invasive therapy options. What do they include? Let's discuss each method.

Laser treatment

One of the gentlest ways to treat varicose veins is to use a laser on the surface of the epidermis. A small flash of light illuminating the walls of the vein contributes to the development of the sclerotic process, which causes the affected vein to disappear as if it had been removed.

Intravenous laser coagulation is another method used to treat varicose veins. However, a small incision is made in a place just above or just below the affected vein. A catheter is then inserted into the vessel and an ultrasound is sent. The laser action lasts about a minute. Then the patient feels warmth in the area of ​​the affected vein, which disappears after a certain time and becomes part of the connective tissue.

Since the patient is given local anesthesia before the procedure, the patient feels absolutely nothing. After the manipulation, there may be a feeling of heaviness in the lower extremities, bruising may appear. However, this has no effect on the recovery phase. The next day the patient can go to work and carry out his usual activities.

radio frequencies

In addition to the laser, the ablation procedure can also be used, which is performed in almost the same way as the laser coagulation described above. The only difference is the equipment used. Instead of a laser, the specialist uses radio frequency energy that passes through the catheter into the affected vessel, heats it until the walls of the vein collapse and it closes. After that, the blood is directed to another channel - a healthy vessel.


It is the complete or partial removal of the affected vessel. Surgery for varicose veins is only prescribed as a last resort when other treatments have failed. To combat varicose veins, surgeons use various surgical techniques. Some of them are listed below:

  • Cross distance.
  • veno-extraction.
  • Miniflebectomy.
  • endoscopy.

The gist of these manipulations is as follows: small incisions are made on the leg in several places (mostly below and above the affected area), after which a thin flexible wire is inserted into the vessel, which removes the diseased vein. These operations are done quite often and almost always without complications. However, they come with certain risks and inconveniences.

For example, such surgical interventions are performed under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia. The use of anesthesia can cause allergic reactions to the drugs used, bleeding holes and breathing problems.

Among other negative factors that can occur after the operation, the possibility of infection, bruising and swelling in the affected area, nerve damage, irritation of the veins or the formation of blood clots in the vessels must be mentioned. It should also be remembered that performing a surgical procedure does not guarantee that it will not recur in the future.

The postoperative period does not last long. Within a day or two, the patient can begin their daily tasks. He is advised to wear compression clothing for a week.


This is one of the methods of treating varicose veins that should also be paid attention to. It can be carried out directly in the doctor's office without hospitalization. During the manipulation process, a special chemical solution is injected into the diseased vein, which acts as an irritant, causing the vein to thicken and close. After that, blood flow occurs through healthy vessels.

This procedure is useful when a small vein in the knee is involved. Sclerotherapy is usually combined with other methods of treating varicose veins.

Various preparations are used as a chemical solution. After the manipulation, the patient must wear compression bandages impregnated with a sclerosant. The wearing time is determined individually by the attending physician.

The side effects of such injections include the following negative manifestations:

  • The appearance of blood clots in other vessels of the lower extremities.
  • headache.
  • lower back pain.
  • Temporary visual impairment.
  • passed out.
  • Irritation of the epidermis around the injection site.

Nevertheless, most patients tolerate sclerotherapy well. If the contraindications are taken into account and the manipulation is carried out correctly, a positive result in the treatment of varicose veins is guaranteed.

First aid kit for people

Is it possible to cure the disease with alternative medicine? In some cases, yes, especially when it comes to the primary manifestations of the disease and when treatment is carried out according to the methods of the grandmother with the approval of the attending physician.

So, what components should you replenish in order to begin effective pathology treatment? Let's take apple cider vinegar first. Stir two teaspoons of the product in a glass of water, add a little honey and drink on an empty stomach in the morning.

Apple cider vinegar can also be used for topical application in the form of rubbing after it has been dissolved in water (ratio 1 to 10). Rub the affected area with gentle movements at night - in the morning the unpleasant symptoms should decrease.

Chestnut tincture is often used against varicose veins. To do this, collect beautiful and undamaged fruits and grind them through a meat grinder. Then fifty grams of raw materials are poured into half a liter bottle of vodka and kept in a dark place for two weeks. After that, the tincture is filtered and taken internally 30 to 40 drops per tablespoon of water three or four times a day, half an hour before meals. The course of such treatment is a month. Then take a break of two weeks and repeat again if necessary.

This tincture can also be used to rub the affected area overnight.

An ancient way to get rid of varicose veins is through the use of leeches. The patient and their doctor decide how much hirudotherapy is necessary in each individual case.

So we paid enough attention to the varicose veins of the lower extremities. Now let's talk about other types of diseases.

Small pelvic vessels

Varicose veins of the pelvic organs

This pathology is very easy to confuse with gynecological diseases in women.

Varicose veins in the pelvic area can be considered hormonal disorders, pathology of the genitourinary system, or even ordinary sciatica. However, it is very important to identify the disease as early as possible. Varicose veins of the pelvis can cause malfunction of the ovaries and the entire circulatory system in women.

What are the causes of this intimate illness?

Disease Prosecutors

The main reasons for the development of the disease are heavy pregnancy, regular high-intensity physical activity, a sedentary lifestyle, some gynecological diseases, prolonged use of hormonal drugs, dissatisfaction with sex life and so on. Most often, varicose veins of the small pelvis appear on the background of an increased amount of estrogen. And of course do not forget that being overweight and bad habits do not improve the situation, they only make it worse.

How can you identify such a disease?

This is an important symptom

First of all, pelvic varicose veins are manifested in pain of varying intensity, which is aggravated after or during intercourse, physical exertion or prolonged stay in the same position. The disease is also characterized by bleeding, frequent urination, accompanied by painful sensations, swelling, redness of the vulva or perineum, burning or itching in this area.

A few words about treatment

how to treat pelvic varicose veins

How are pathological varicose veins of the pelvis removed? First of all, you should contact a specialist. He can recommend wearing compression underwear and special gymnastics (these are known exercises in the supine position - "birch", "scissors" and "bicycle").

Among the popular methods, decoctions of dandelion or chaga root and chestnut tinctures have proven to be the most effective.

And what can you say about another type of varicose vein - the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract?

digestive organs

Esophageal varicose veins are not considered a very common condition. Most of the time, the disease is an accompanying symptom of a more serious illness.

Why does such a pathology arise and how do you define it?

Briefly about the causes and symptoms

The main reasons for the expansion of the veins in the esophagus are blockages in the liver vessels caused by thrombosis or cirrhosis. This pathology is most often diagnosed in men, as well as in patients with severe chronic diseases, especially in those over fifty. How do I recognize a disease?

Esophageal varicose veins are usually asymptomatic and manifest themselves in rare attacks of heartburn, heaviness in the abdomen, difficulty swallowing and belching. Sometimes patients show external signs of a pathological process - protrusion of blood vessels and veins on the front wall of the abdomen (abdominal cavity).

Most often, a disease is diagnosed during a crisis, that is, when the vein wall ruptures and bleeding occurs. In most cases, bleeding is accompanied by vomiting (bloody), low blood pressure, general weakness, increased heart rate, bloody discharge (or impurities) in the feces.

If such symptoms appear, it is imperative to do a blood test and take an X-ray (with the introduction of special contrast solutions).

Treatment of pathology of the esophagus

Most of the time, this disease is treated in the intensive care unit. If there is any bleeding, the doctors' initial job is to get rid of it. Astringent preparations, colloidal solutions and blood-building agents can be used for this. In some cases, doctors recommend transfusing blood or its major components (or blood substitutes).

If the above methods don't work, professionals may think it appropriate to have surgery or sclerotherapy of the esophagus. After recovery, the patient is forced to adhere to a fairly strict diet for life. Proper nutrition includes fractionated meals, avoiding fatty, smoked, salty and fried foods, avoiding foods that are hot or too cold, etc.


It is well known that diseases are easier to prevent than cure. What measures should be taken to prevent the appearance of a pathological process in the veins?

First of all - a healthy lifestyle! Adequate diet, moderate physical activity, elimination of bad habits, wearing comfortable shoes and clothes - all of these will not only help improve your health, but also avoid many serious ailments. Get well soon!